Monkeys taught to pass mirror selfawareness test

first_img Play (1) On the training chair, the trained monkey learned to touch the light spot on the rubber balls (with food reward) by looking at the mirror image of the light spot with 100% success rates. When the laser light was projected to the monkey’s face, the trained monkey failed to touch the face mark point. (2) The rubber ball was substituted by a bigger flat board on each side of the monkey’s head that could be seen only in the mirror. The light spot could be moved rapidly to multiple random positions in two dimensions on the board, and more precise touching was required for obtaining the food reward. On the training chair, the trained monkey could correctly touch the light spot on the board with 100% success rate. When the light spot was projected to the monkey’s face, the trained monkey correctly touched the spot position on his face. Credit: (c) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620764114 The team then placed a dye mark on each of the monkeys’ faces without them knowing it and then allowed them to look at a mirror—at that point, all of the monkeys individually noticed the mark and directed their hand to it, wiping at it and sniffing it. All of the test monkeys eventually passed the test, even while control monkeys continued to misidentify their own faces in the mirror as belonging to another monkey. This, the team suggests, indicates that the monkeys are clearly capable of passing the self-recognition test, and thus have self-awareness. Their claims were further bolstered by continued monitoring of the trained monkeys as they sat in front of a mirror with no direction. They used the mirror to check out normally unseen body parts, such as their genitals and to preen themselves. This, the team suggests, clearly shows that having learned how a mirror works, the monkeys truly demonstrated that they were aware of themselves. Monkeys can learn to see themselves in the mirror PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences has found that rhesus monkeys can pass the mirror self-awareness test if they are first taught how mirrors work. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes how they taught the monkeys to understand how mirrors work and how the monkeys behaved once they had it down. © 2017 Phys.org Explore further Citation: Monkeys taught to pass mirror self-awareness test (2017, February 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-monkeys-taught-mirror-self-awareness.html More information: Liangtang Chang et al. Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620764114AbstractMirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror. After several weeks of training, when the same laser pointer light was projected to the monkey’s face, a location not used in training, all three trained monkeys successfully touched the face area marked by the light spot in front of a mirror. All trained monkeys passed the standard face mark test for MSR both on the monkey chair and in their home cage. Importantly, distinct from untrained control monkeys, the trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in their home cage, such as using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Thus, bodily self-consciousness may be a cognitive ability present in many more species than previously thought, and acquisition of precise visual-proprioceptive association for the images in the mirror is critical for revealing the MSR ability of the animal. For many years, cognitive researchers have relied on the mirror self-recognition test as a means for determining if an animal is capable of self-awareness. A dye mark is made on the face of an individual being tested and then that individual is allowed to look at itself in the mirror—if it see the mark and touches it, then it passes the test. But more recently, some in the field have begun to question the validity of the test, suggesting that an inability to pass the test might be more of an indication that an animal simply does not understand how a mirror works. In this new effort, the researchers sought to see if that might be the case by training a group of male rhesus monkeys on how a mirror works before giving it the test.The training involved placing a monkey in front of a mirror and rewarding him each time he correctly placed his hand on a spot in its cage lit up by a laser pointer on the wall behind the animal. Over time, as the monkeys got the idea, the pointer was eventually directed to its face, at which point, a given monkey would touch its face where the mark was—a close approximation of the self-recognition test. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

How to Protect Your Apple Devices From Getting Hacked Right Now

first_img 3 min read Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Register Now » Apple’s software code isn’t bulletproof. Far from it.A major security crack, aptly nicknamed “GoTo Fail,” could give malicious hackers carte blanche to creep on your Apple goodies — iPhones, iPads, iPod touches, and Mac laptops and desktop computers included.But you don’t have to be a sitting duck. Not if you install the security patches that Apple has issued. First, the Cupertino, Calif.-tech mammoth somewhat stealthily released the 7.0.6 iOS patch last Friday. The fix safeguards iPhones 4 and 5, the second generation iPad and the fifth generation iPod touch. Then, just about two hours ago, the company issued the OS X Mavericks 10.9.2 patch for Mac laptop and Mac desktop devices.  Related: This Apple iWatch Concept Design is Simply IncredibleIf you haven’t already installed the security patches on your devices, you’re leaving them wide open to cyber criminals who could eavesdrop on virtually everything on them that’s linked to an Apple app (Calendar, Mail, Safari, FaceTime, etc.), and even third-party apps that rely on Apple’s SSL encryption (Twitter, Facebook, banking apps, etc.).Before you get caught in the middle of a Man-In-the-Middle (MITM) attack, follow the simple steps below:To install Apple’s iOS security patch on your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch:1. From your device’s home screen, select Settings.  2. Select General.3. Select Software Update. At this point you should see a message about iOS 7.0.6, noting that the “security update provides a fix for SSL connection verification.” (A patch for the Apple iPhone 3GS and fourth-generation Apple iPod touch is available via iOS 6.1.6 update.)4. Select Download and Install. The installation will initialize after you agree to the Terms and Conditions.To install the Apple’s OS X security patch on your Mac laptop or Mac desktop computer: 1. Go the main Apple menu (signified by an the famed Apple icon) on the upper left side of your Mac laptop or desktop computer screen.2. Select Software Update. Doing so will launch the Apple App Store.3. Select the OS X Mavericks 10.9.2. security update by clicking Update. Your update will automatically begin once you agree to the Terms and Conditions. (Security patches for older Mac operating systems, including Lion and Mountain Lion are also available.)4. To finish the installation and restart your computer, click Restart.Related: PHOTOS: This IS Supposedly the iPhone 6center_img February 25, 2014 Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goalslast_img read more

Rep Chatfield cosponsors bill to protect school and local government funding from

first_img State Rep. Lee Chatfield is co-sponsoring a bill to provide clarity to the assessing process for large commercial and warehouse stores to address “dark store” tax rulings that are leaving northern Michigan communities with sudden budget gaps totaling hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars.Over the last few years, the Michigan Tax Tribunal, the state’s five-member tax court, has ruled that big box stores should be valued not by formulas that consider the cost to build them, but by comparing their worth to nearby big box buildings that have been closed and sit empty. When big box retailers move out of a property, they often put a restriction on the deed that prevents any competitor from acquiring the space. As a result, that property can sit dark and lose more taxable value. Companies point to these deed-restricted properties with decreased values and argue that the lower tax rate should be the standard for taxing an open store.“This legislation will bring fairness and uniformity to the assessing process of large buildings and in the same manner as homes and small businesses are assessed,” said Rep. Chatfield, R-Levering “Additionally, this measure will not increase taxes on businesses but it will safeguard funding for educating our children and keeping our communities safe.”House Bill 4909 amends the Zoning Enabling Act by preventing negative-use restrictions that prohibit occupancy or use of the property when that restriction goes against the lawful use of the property under local zoning ordinances. 01Oct Rep. Chatfield co-sponsors bill to protect school and local government funding from ‘dark stores’ tax assessments Categories: Chatfield Newslast_img read more